| |

  , ,
, - .

{1} .: ..  — . ., 197 1; .. : . ., 1983; .. - . .,1961; . . ., 1970; .. :, , , . .,1976 ; .. : . .,1970; .. . .,1970;

{2}  XXVII . .,1986. . 133.

{3}  . . 161.

{4}  Holloway D. War, Militarism and the Soviet State. Harmondsworth, 1980. P. 158.

{5}  Almquist P. Red Forge: Soviet Military Industry since 1965. New York. 1990. P. 12–13.

{6}  Cooper J. The Soviet Defence Industry: Conversion and Reform. London, 1991. P. 6.

{7}  Harrison M. The Soviet Defence Industrial Complex in World War II. Tokyo, 1994.

{8}  .: . .5. ., 1978; .. . ., 1970; . 1941–1945 . ., 1970; .. . ., 1965.

{9}  .4372, .76, .237, .47–48.

{10}  . . ., 1937.'. 53–54.

{11}  .: B.C. -16. « ». ., 1992; - .. . . -40, 1992; .. . ., 1990; .. ( ).-: . , 1992; . -16, 1994; . . ̄ 1994. .1; .. (1947–1957 .). ., ; : 1941–1946 . ( ) // . 1992. № 3.

{12}  .4372, .76, .237, .31–35.

{13}  Military Parade. 1995. November-December. P.159–160.

{14}  . . . . . ., 1993. . 507.

{15}  .

{16}  .2097, .1, .64, .8–24.

{17}  .8418, .8, .2, .500.

{18}  XVII (). 26 -10 1934 . . . ., 1934. .464.

{19}  XVI (). 26 -13 1930 . . . ., 1935. .2. .894.

{20}  .1562, .329, .120, .37.

{21}  .7297, .38, .91, .28.

{22}  .8418, .8, .2, .483.

{23}  .4372, .93, .260, .8–9.

{24}  .4372, .95, .168, .65,175.

{25}  .17, .162, .8, .58.

{26}  .. XX . - . .,1986. .76–77.

{27}  . .79–82.

{28}  . .83–85.

{29}  . .87–97.

{30}  . . 102–105.

{31}  . . 105–107.

{32}  . . 107–110.

{33}  . . 140–142.

{34}  . . 197–205.

{35}  .2097, .1, .219, . 9.

{36}  .17, .121, .47 8, .2–16.

{37}  .: .. : . - . 1918–1921 . /. 1994. .161–197.

{38}  .2097, .1, .949, .110.

{39}  .8418, . 3, .26, .1 19.

{40}  .8418, .16, .1, .283.

{41}  .2097, .1, . 118, .381.

{42}  .2097, .1, .949, .107.

{43}  . . 107–108.

{44}  .8418, .16, .1, .285.

{45}  .8418, .1, .4, .1.

{46}  .

{47}  .8418, .1, .13, .71–107.

{48}  .8418, .16, . 3, .260.

{23} .4372, .91, .1097, .117–153.

{49}  (). 1921 . . . №, 1963. .613.

{50}  . .710.

{51}  .17, .85, .159, .158–159.

{52}  .17, .2, .317(-1), .45.

{53}  . .1 23.

{54}  .17, .12, .5, .52–53.

{55}  .8418, .8, . 157, .95.

{56}  . . ., 1923. .5.

{57}  .8418, .16, .1, .82.

{58}  .8418, .17, .2, .9.

{59}  .8418, .1, .76, .3–4.

{60}  . .6–9.

{61}  . .22–29.

{62}  . . 10–18.

{63}  .8418, .17, .2, .7.

{64}  . . 149.

{65}  .2097, .1, .717, .179–180.

{66}  .2097, .1, .219, .214–215.

{67}  (). 1927 . . . .2. , 1962. .993–994.

{68}  .8418, .1, .56, .3–5; .16, . 3, .427–428.

{69}  .8418, .16, . 3, .334–335.

{70}  .8418, .16, . 3, .334–335.

{71}  .8418, . 3, .26, .9.

{72}  .2097, .1, . 1096, . 1–7.

{73}  .8418, ., .52, . 10–14

{74}  . . 10–11.

{75}  .40442, .1, .38, .107.

{76}  .17, .162, .7, .104–105.

{77}  . . 106.

{78}  .8418, .8, .157, .21–30.

{79}  .. . ., 1970. . 106.

{80}  .5475, .24, .5, .231.

{81}  .17, .162, .8, .43–46.

{82}  .8418, .17, .2, .252–257.

{83}  .2097, .1, . 1051, .35.

{84}  . . 17–18.

{85}  . . 6 4.

{86}  .8418, .4, . 10, .2.

{87}  .17, .162, .8, .85.

{88}  . .86–87.

{89}  .8418, .9, .195, .2–5.

{90}  .2097, .1, .1096, .96.

{91}  .2097, .1, .1122, .3.

{92}  . .2–3. . .4.

{93}  .2097, .1, .890, .4–5.

{94}  .2097, .1, .11 , .20–21.

{95}  .2097, .1, .890, .1.

{96}  .17, .162, .8, . 18–19.

{97}  .2097, .1, .1096, .58–64.

{98}  .17, .162, . 10, .48–50.

{99}  .8418, .5, .11, .2.

{100}  .8418, ., .52, .9–10.

{101}  . . 10–12.

{102}  .4372, .91, .1097, .2.

{103}  .4372, .91, .2196, .25.

{104}  .8418, .8, .2, .473.

{105}  .4372, .91, .2196, .27.

{106}  .8418, .8, .2, .471.

{107}  . .471–472.

{108}  .7297, .38, .91, .36–37.

{109}  .8418, .8, .2, .474.

{110}  .8418, .25, .14, .2–3.

{111}  .8418, .4, .17, .1.

{112}  . .6–10.

{113}  .8418, .6, . 3,.1.

{114}  . .4.

{115} XVI (). 25  — 13 1930 . . . ., 1935. .515.

{116} XVII (). 26  — 10 1934 . . . ., 1934. .230.

{117}  .8418, .21, .2, .120–133.

{118}  . .152.

{119}  .7297, .38, .170, .12–28.

{120}  .8418, .8, .2, .474.

{121}  . .37–38.

  .8418, .8, .157, .21–30.

{123}  ., .. : . . 1922–1933. . ., 1992. .309.

{124}  .4372, .91, .1097, .2.

{125}  .4372, .91, .1794, .17–186.

{126}  . . 17.

{127}  . 1933–1937 . . ., 1971. .20.

{128}  .7733, .36. .3789, .88.

{129}  . 1938–1941 . . ., 1973. .17.

{130}  .7297, .38, .2, .292.

{131}  .8418, .12, . 16, . 147.

{132}  .8418, ., .7, .83.

{133}  .1562, .329, .120, .22.

{134}  . .23.

{135}  .8418, .8, . 175, .5–9.

{136}  . .34.

{137}  .7297, .38, .2, .248.

{138}  .7515, .1, .75, ..

{139}  . . 4.

{140}  .

{141}  .4372, .91, .3217, .116;


{142} .7733, .36, 3789, .88.

{143}  . 1933–1937 . . ., 1971. .128,144;


{144} .4372, .91, 3217, .127.

{145}  .8418, .27, .153, .1–38.

{146}  .7297, .38, .170, .5–8.

{147}  .: ., . // «-». . 1. .,1995. .56.

{148}  .8418, .6, .243, .86–88.

{149}  . .7–9. . . 9.

{150}  .7297, .38, .1, .42–55.

{151}  . .42–43.

{152}  .. . .,1989. .295.

{153}  .8418, .12, .308, .43–44.

{154}  .4372, .94, . 1863, .29.

{155}  .8418, .11, .78, .81–87.

{156}  .8418, .27, .21, .4. ,


{157} . .4.

{158}  .7297, .38, .91, .13.


{159} . .13.
{160} .8418, .10, 137, .1–120.

{161}  .8418, .21, .2, .170.

{162}  .8418, ., .138, .2–4.

{163}  .7515, .1, .24, .55.

{164}  .8418, .12, .440, .39.

{165}  . .41.

{166}  .8418, .17, .2, .265.

{167}  .7515, .1, .24, .52.

{168}  .7515, .1, .153, .417–418.

{169}  . .382.

{170}  . .347.

{171} XVIII (). 10–21 1939 . . . ., 1939.-/203.

{172}  .7515, .1, .153, .154–155.

{173}  .5446, .57, .66, .164.

{174}  .8418, .24,.1624, .4. .

{175}  .: . . . ., 1994. .282.

{176}  .8418, .26, .9, .13–14.

{177}  . .4–5.

{178}  .8418, .27, .97, .2.

{179}  .8418, .8, .147, .37–377.

{180}  .8418, .8, . 157, ..

{181}  .40442, .1, .38, .209–211.

{182}  .8418, .9, .211, .9–12.

{183}  . .13–14.

{184}  . . 15.

{185}  .8418, ., .221, .52.

{186}  . .55–57.

{187}  .8418, .23, .73, .62.

{188}  .8418, .26, .9, .4–5.

{189}  . . 16–25.

{190}  .8418, .26, . 3, .99–100.

{191}  .8418, .27, .97, .63–64.

{192}  .4372, .82, . 1875, .4.

{193}  . . .,1936. .56–57.

{194}  . . (). .,1937. .45.

{195}  .8418, .23, .2, .1–7.

{196}  .8418, .23, .1262, .60.

{197}  .8418, .27, .65, .8–9.

{198}  .4372, .77, .255, .212.

{199}  . 1938–1941 . . .,1973. .128.

{200}  4372, .94, .945, .7.

{201}  .. . ., 1962-.300.

{202}  .4372, .91, .3217, . 127.

{203}  .7733, .36, .281, .42.

{204}  .. ( ) // . 1968. № 10. . 117.

{205}  .5446, .57, .65, .51–52.

{206}  .8418, .24, .570, .26.

{207}  .8418, .24, . 1449, .49–50. 1°{208} .4372, .99, .260, .8–9.

{209}  . . 9.

{210}  .8418, .24, .1449, .51–52.

{211}  . .360–362.

{212}  .7, .1, .384, .145.

{213}  .. . ., 1970. . 190–191.

{214}  .: «Deutsches Wiltschaftsinstitut». Bericht. 2. 1965. S.4.

{215}  .8418, .23, .1259, .1–4.

{216}  ^- 50 . , 1968. .. .44–48.

{217}  . ., 1975. .4. . 140.

{218}  . .153, 502.

{219}  .4372, .93, .70, .220–250.

{220}  . .220–221.

{221}  . .221–223.

{222}  .8006, .1, .4, .72–73.

{223}  .4372, .93, .558, .1 54–155.

{224}  .806, .1, .4, .4.

{225}  .4372, .93, .31, .1 57.

{226}  .4372, .93, .573, .258–259.

{227}  . 1941–1945 ., 1961. .196.

{228}  : , : . .351, 355, 357,359.

{229}  .4372, .93, .31, .191.{230}{231} . . 1 91.

{232}  .4372, .96, .76, . 238.

{233}  .4372, .93, .583, .83

{234}  . .84.

{235}  .4372, .98, .982, .14–15.

{236}  .4372, .96, .76, .236–238.

{237}  . . . 12(551). ., 1978.

{238}  1941–1945: 6 . ., 1970. .. .167.

{239}  .7733, .36, .1309, .97–99.

{240}  . .97.

{241}  . .96.

{242}  . .95.

{243}  .4372, .98, .982, .14–15.

{244}  . - . .2. ., 1992. .55.

{245}  1941–1945 . : . 1970. .35.

{246}  .7733, .36, .1892, .83.

{247}  .4372, .94, .1461, .1 14; .95, .183, ,1.

{248}  .4372, .94,.5, .54.

{249}  .7733, .36, .1291, .72–73.

{250}  . .73.

{251}  .4372, .82, .1875, .118.

{252}  .4372, .95, .392, .109.

{253}  . ..

{254}  .7733. .36, .1927, .20.

{255}  .4372, .94, .349, ..

{256}  .4372, .77, .255, .111.

{257}  .8123, .8, .175, .40–41.

{258}  .. // . 1969. № 1. . 130.

{259}  .4372, .77, .255, . 108.

{260}  .8752, .4, 728, .77.

{261}  . .1 58–1 63.

{262}  .86, .60, .28–30.

{263}  .8899, .1, .73, .6–7.

{264}  .8899, .1, .257, .64.

{265}  .4372, .93, .1519, .83–84.

{266}  .4372, .93, .568, .56–60.

{267}  .8899, .1, . 11 50, .1.

{268}  .4372, .77, .255, .97.

{269}  . .97.

{270}  .8006, .5, .121–122.

{271}  .4372, .77, .255, .101.

{272}  .4372, .94, .1741, .108.

{273}  .: .. (1941–1945 .) ., 1979. .323.

{274}  .. . . . 1 31.

{275}  .8418, .26, .2, .99–100.

{276}  .71, .25, .7882, .4–20.

{277}  .4372, .94, . 1 15, .36–37.

{278}  .7733, .36, . 1863, .22.

{279}  .4372, .93, .70, .230.

{280}  .7733, .36, .1309, .97.

{281}  .7733, .36. .1309, .96.

{282}  .4372, .94, .115, .53.

{283}  .7733, .36, .985, .8–9.

{284}  . .9.

{285}  . .9.

{286}  .7733, .36, .1309, .243.


{287} . . 100.

{288}  .7733, .36, .1927, .35.


{289} . .34.

{290}  . .98–99.

{291}  .7733, .36, .1298, .40.

{292}  . .38.

{293}  .437 2, .95, .78, .61–64.


{294} .
{295} .4372, .95, .168, .140.

{296}  .4372, .77, .255, .221–222.

{297}  .4372, .94, . 5, .49.

{298}  . .48.

{299}  .7733, .36, .2528, .58.

{300}  .437 2, .94, . 1 15, .42.

{301}  .4372, .95, .78, .60.

{302}  .4372, .94, .1454, .43.

{303}  .: .. : . ., 1983 .69, 143.

{304}  .4372, .96, .278, .1.

{305}  .4372, .94, .945 .7.

{306}  .4372, .94, .1454, .43.

{307}  1956 . .66–68.

{308}  .4372, .99, .241, .140.

{309}  .8899, .1, .1015, .97.

{310}  .. . . . . ., 1990. .422.

{311}  .4372, .94, . 114, .91–92.

{312}  . .94–95.

{313}  .4372, .94, .1461, .1–3.

{314}  .4372, .94, .1461, 07–109, 111–113.

{315}  .4372, .94, .1454, .109.

{316}  .4372, .94, .1461, .114.

{317}  .4372, .94, .1454, .59.

{318}  .4372, .95, .168, .136.

{319}  .4372, .94, .1863, .42–43.

{320}  . .40–41.

{321}  .4372, .94, .1741, .119, 103–104.

{322}  . . 105.

{323}  .7733, .36, .2528, .58.

{324}  .4372, .95, .468,. 181.

{325}  .4372, .97, .536, .76.

{326}  .4372, .96, .693, . 161–162.

{327}  .4372, .98, .859, .110.

{328}  .7733, .36, .3958, .36.

{329}  .17, .19, .278, . 18–19.

{330}  . . 19.

{331}  . . 19–20.

{332}  . .21.

{333}  .4372, .97, .536, .42–43.

{334}  . .39–63.

{335}  ,4372, .98, .859, .110.

{336}  . .70.

{337}  .437 2, .97, . .29.

{338}  .8899, .1, .1485, .7.

{339}  . .1.

{340}  .4372, .97, .536, .29.

{341}  . :,1995. .43–44.

{342}  .. . ., 1970. .685.

{343}  .644, .1, .58, .40.

{344}  . . 144.

{345}  .5446, .67, .5, .23.

{346}  . .55.

{347}  . .81.

{348}  . . 197.

{349}  .17, .127, .1296,.42–43.

{350}  . .43.

{351}  .8044, .1, .1321, .252.

{352}  .17, .127, .1296, ..

{353}  . .7

{354}  . .8–9.

{355}  .4372, .82, .1875, .104.

{356}  .17, .127, . 1293, .23.

{357}  . .1296, .5.

{358}  . . 13–14.

{359}  . . 15–16.

{360}  .5446, .43, .52, .70.

{361}  .17, .127, . 1293, .26.

{362}  . .25.

{363}  . .26.

{364}  . .28.

{365}  .4372, .98, .859, .71.

{366}  .: .. . .: , 1996. .234.

{367}  .17, .127, . 1293, .55–56.

{368}  . .44–45.

{369}  .8044, .1, .1321, .252.

{370}  . .250–251.

{371}  .17, .127, . 1293, .51–52.

{372}  . .55–56.

{373}  .. : . .: , 1994. .341.

{374}  .4372, .95, .392.

{375}  .8899, .1, .1485, .19–20.

{376}  . ., 1968. .240.

{377}  .. . . .401.

{378}  . .420.

{379}  : - : 2 . ., 1992. T.I. C41–42.

{380}  . .65.

{381}  . -9401, .1, .176, .345.

{382}  . .205–207.

{383}  .

{384}  .4372, .98, .1305, .16.

{385}  .7733, .36, .3381, .151; .3985, .2.

{386}  .4372, .98, .1305, .20.

{387}  .. .. .457–458.

{388}  .7733, .36, .5340, .139.

{389}  .4372, .79, .281, .39.

{390}  .7733, .36, .5340, .139.

{391}  .4372, .95, .439, .69.

{392}  . .90.

{393}  .9452, .1, .44, .124.

{394}  .4372, .80, . 31, .63.

{395}  .4372, .82, .1875, .202.

{396}  ., .1, .190, .55.

{397}  . ., 1992. . 1. . 188–189.

{398}  . . 189.

{399}  .8418, .12, .152, .6.

{400}  ., .1, .190, .5 3.

{401}  . .55.

{402}  . .-. . 1995. . 1/2. .62–63,

{403}  .8899, .1, .794, .5.

{404}  ., .2, .5, .52.

{405}  .8899, .1, .756, .17–19.

{406}  ., .1, .757, .10–20.

{407}  ., .2, .5, .25.

{408}  ., .1, . 109, ..

{409}  ., .1, .190, .56.

{410}  .4372, .98, .859, .76.

{411}  .4372, .98, .859, .75.

{412}  .8899, .1, .1485, .14.

{413}  .4372, .98, .859, .110.

{110 . .68–69.

{414}  .8899, .1, .1150, .213.

{415}  .7, .1, .554, .8.

{416}  ., .1, .797, .1–3.

{417}  . .64.

{418}  .7, .1, .554, .8.

{419}  . .42.

{420}  .7, .1, .139, .1.

{421}  .7, .1, .143, .130–131.

{422}  .7, .1. .971. .186–188.

{423}  .29, .1, .579, .55.

{424}  .29, .1, .1713, .260–261.

{425}  .7, .1, .849, .30–31.

{426}  .7, .1, .391, ..

{427}  . .34.

{428}  . .35.

{429}  .7, .1, .570, .5–6.

{430}  .4372, .82, .187, .99–100.

{431}  . . 151 .  — 1 , 47,2%,  — 16,5%,  — 19,4%,  — 16,9 %. 1991 . 20 ..,  — 2,9 . .,  — 8 . . — B.C. -16. « ». .: . AT, 1992. .108.

{432}  .7, .1, .849, .32.

{433}  . .32.

{434}  . .32–33.

{435}  . .25, 32–33.

{436}  .29, .1, .1712, .256.

{437}  .9452, .1, .42, .145–146.

{438}  .5446, .68, .9, . 62.

{439}  . .60–61.

{440}  .8899, .1, .1874, .1.

{441}  .4372, .98, .271, .5.

{442}  .5446, .66, . 3, .47.

{443}  .. . , 1989. .4-5.

{444}  : 50 . ., 1968. .4. .146.

{445}  .4372, .76, .320, .9.

{446}  . . 10.

{447}  .4372, .76, .320, .11.

{448}  .7, .1, .92, .59–60.

{449}  .4372, .76, .2, ..

{450}  .4372, .76, .320, .5.

{451}  . .9.

{452}  . .10–11.

{453}  . .5.

{454}  .7733, .36, .6356, .113–116; .6800, .139.

{455}  .437, ., .4, .136–137.

{456}  . . 137.

{457}  .7, .1, .384, .139.

{458}  .4372, .79, .253, .179.

{459}  .29, .1, .579, .288–289.

{460}  .29, .1, .3419, .55.

{461}  .4372, .80, .314, .32–35.

{462}  .4372, .81, .1274, .1–4.

{463}  .4372, .76, .320, .5.

{464}  .: . (194' 1986 .): . ., 1987, .112.

{465}  .4372, .76, .320, .7–8.

{466}  .472, .79, .283, .5.

{467}  .7, .1, .849, .1–4.

{468}  . .5–6.

{469}  .7, .1, . 100, .3–4.

{470}  .9452, .1, . 1227, .94,109.

{471}  .9452, .1, .375, .1,33.

{472}  . .29,35, 45.

{473}  ^-^ , «» . 36% , 25% 50% 25 . - 25 1960 . 6%. ( .7, .1, .397, .60.)

{474}  .9452, .1, .375, .18–20.

{475}  .9452, .1, .369, .151–152.

{476}  . -» . . 2. .: 1994 .102–103.

{477}  . .231.

{478}  .4372, .82, .1875, .47.

{479}  .4372, .97, . 108, .8.

{480}  . .8–9.

{481}  .7, .1, . 100, .2.

{482}  .29, .1, . 11 73, .233.

{483}  . .233.

{484}  .7, .1,.94, .6–8.

{485}  .9452, .1, .951, .171–172.

{486}  .7, .1, .403, .35–37.

{487}  . .6. ., 1980. .253.

{488}  . . ., 1969. .110.

{489}  . .110.

{490}  . .6. .262.

{491}  .4372, .79, . 186, 123.

{492}  . . 122.

{493}  .7, .2, .113, ..

{494}  . .5.

{495}  .4372, .1, .169, .8–9.

{496}  .437, .4, .445, .1–4.

{497}  .4372, .76, .113, .5.

{498} – . .6–7.

{499}  .7, .1, .407, .272.

{500}  .7, .1, .849, .33.